QD or quantum dots refer to artificial nanostructures functioning as semiconductor nanocrystals capable of exhibiting behavior similar to that of quantum mechanics. Its properties are often determined by their structure, size, composition, and shape. Some of its most thought-provoking electrical attributes are those arising from the precise dimension of their energy band gaps.

Quantum Dots Properties

Alexey I. Ekimov, a Russian Physicist is often credited with the discovery as well as the use of quantum dots. These tiny particles that have a diameter ranging between two to ten nanometers were first discovered in 1981. The size of the nanoparticle gets to determine its color. The quantum dots can fall into several categories depending on their structure and composition. This includes alloyed, core type, and core-shell quantum dots.

QDs tend to emit light whenever they become excited, which means that the smaller dots tend to emit the highest-energy light. It has become possible for producers to control the size of each QD. This, therefore, makes it possible for them to accurately tune the emitted light’s wavelength to ensure that it produces the desired color. Their applications have expanded in the last few years to cover areas such as quantum computing, solar cells, medical imaging, transistors, and LEDs. This is due to the unique nature of their electronic attributes.

Optical Applications

A QD is capable of emitting any color from a single material by adjusting the size of the dot. Quantum dots possess bright, pure colors capable of emitting a rainbow of colors which is often coupled with high extinction coefficients, longer lifetimes, and high efficiencies. Its high extinction coefficient is what makes it ideal for optical applications.

LEDs

QD-LED or quantum dot light-emitting diodes come in handy when manufacturers are looking to create displays for use in electronic devices. The reason for this being that the ‘QD—White LED’ and the QD—LED are able to discharge light in extremely detailed Gaussian distributions. These kinds of displays are in a position to render shades in a manner that is very accurate.
It’s also the reason why they are known to use less power compared to the normal display.

Biological Applications

The current version of the QDs possesses a lot of potential, especially when it comes to biological analysis applications. They are small in size which means that they can go to any part of the human body. This is what makes them ideal for use in biological applications such as biosensors and medical imaging. Scientists are also using them for cellular imaging, tumor targeting, and in the study of intracellular processes.